LOCATION3rd Fl. Core Coll.
Call No. KZ1242.5 .I578 2014
Author Damrosch, Lori F. (Lori Fisler), author.
Title International law : cases and materials / by Lori Fisler Damrosch (Hamilton Fish Professor of International Law and Diplomacy, Columbia University, School of Law), Sean D. Murphy (Patricia Roberts Harris Research Professor of Law, George Washington University Law School, Member, U.N. International Law Commission).
Location Volume/Copy Barcode Status
 3rd Fl. Core Coll.  KZ1242.5 .I578 2014    3500501423416Y  
 3rd Fl. Core Coll.  KZ1242.5 .I578 2014 c.2  35005014149986  
 3rd Fl. Core Coll.  KZ1242.5 .I578 2014  Basic documents suppl.    35005013903972  
 3rd Fl. Core Coll.  KZ1242.5 .I578 2014  Basic documents suppl. c.2  35005013903983  
 3rd Fl. Core Coll.  KZ1242.5 .I578 2014  Basic documents suppl. c.3  3500501423417Z  
 Preface To The Sixth Editionv
 Abbreviationsvii
 Acknowledgmentsix
 Introduction To The Study Of International Lawxiii
 Historical Introductionxvii
 Table Of Caseslxiii
ch. 1 Nature of International Law1
1.International Law as Binding Law1
A.International Law and Politics2
 Henkin, International Law: Politics and Values2
 Henkin, How Nations Behave3
 Austin, The Province of Jurisprudence Determined3
 Hart, The Concept of Law4
 Notes6
B.Compliance with International Law8
 Henkin, How Nations Behave8
 Koh, Why Do Nations Obey International Law?12
 Notes13
C.Enforcement of International Law17
 Damrosch, Enforcing International Law Through Non-Forcible Measures17
 Notes19
2.Completeness and Coherence in International Law20
 The Case of the S.S. "Lotus" (France v. Turkey)21
 Notes24
 Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons25
 Notes26
 Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo27
 Notes29
 Fragmentation of International Law: Difficulties Arising from the Diversification and Expansion of International Law29
 Notes34
3.Dynamic Change in International Law34
A.Changing Dimensions of Sovereignty35
 Henkin, International Law: Politics and Values36
 Xue, Chinese Observations on International Law37
 Notes38
B.Changing Historical Contexts40
 Notes42
4.Differing Methodological Approaches43
A.Legal Positivism44
 Simma & Paulus, The Responsibility of Individuals for Human Rights Abuses in Internal Conflicts: A Positivist View44
B.The New Haven School45
 Wiessner & Willard, Policy-Oriented Jurisprudence and Human Rights Abuses in Internal Conflict: Toward a World Public Order of Human Dignity45
C.International Legal Process47
D.Critical Legal Studies47
E.International Law and International Relations48
 Abbott, International Relations Theory, International Law and the Regime Governing Atrocities in Internal Conflicts48
F.Feminist Jurisprudence50
 Charlesworth, Chinkin & Wright, Feminist Approaches to International Law50
G.Law and Economics51
 Dunoff & Trachtman, The Law and Economics of Humanitarian Law Violations in Internal Conflict51
 Notes53
ch. 2 Sources: Customary International Law57
1.Sources and Evidence of International Law Generally57
 Statute of the International Court of Justice57
 Schachter, International Law in Theory and Practice57
 Notes59
2.Customary International Law60
 Notes62
A.Core Requirements: General Practice and Opinio Juris63
 The Paquete Habana63
 Notes68
 The Case of the S.S. "Lotus" (France v. Turkey)71
 Notes76
B.Effect of Treaties on Customary International Law79
 North Sea Continental Shelf Cases (Federal Republic of Germany v. Denmark; Federal Republic of Germany v. Netherlands)79
 Case Concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States)85
 Notes88
C.Effect of General Assembly Resolutions on Customary International Law92
 Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons92
 Notes95
D.The Position of "Non-Consenting" States98
 Statement of Principles Applicable to the Formation of General Customary International Law, Principle 1598
 Notes99
E.Jus Cogens (Peremptory Norms)101
 Fragmentation of International Law: Difficulties Arising from the Diversification and Expansion of International Law101
 Questions Relating to the Obligation to Prosecute or Extradite (Belgium v. Senegal)105
 Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy: Greece Intervening)107
 Notes111
3.The Relationship of Custom and Treaties114
ch. 3 The Law of Treaties117
1.Definition and Governing Law117
A.The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties: General Considerations118
B.The Vienna Convention as Customary International Law119
2.Conclusion and Entry into Force120
A.Existence of a Treaty120
 Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions (Qatar v. Bahrain)121
 Jiménez de Aréchaga, International Law in the Past Third of a Century125
 Notes126
B.Capacity to Conclude Treaties128
C.Expression of Consent to Be Bound129
1.Persons Considered as Representing States129
 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Article 7129
 Sinclair, The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties130
 Notes131
2.Methods of Expressing Consent131
 Notes132
D.Obligation Not to Defeat the Object of a Treaty134
 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Article 18134
 Notes135
3.Reservations137
A.What Is a Reservation?137
 Notes138
B.Importance of Reservations139
C.Permissibility of and Objections to Reservations141
 Reservations to the Convention on Genocide141
 Notes146
 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Articles 19-21147
 Notes148
 United Nations Human Rights Committee, General Comment 24 on Issues Relating to Reservations Made to the ICCPR150
 Observations by the United States of America on General Comment No. 24154
 Guide to Practice on Reservations to Treaties158
 Notes159
4.Observance, Application, and Interpretation161
A.Observance161
B.Application163
C.Interpretation163
 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Article 31164
 Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro)165
 Notes169
5.Invalidity, Termination, and Suspension174
A.General Provisions174
B.Invalidity176
1.Ultra Vires Treaties176
2.Coercion177
3.Conflict with a Peremptory Norm (Jus Cogens)180
 Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of the Second Part of Its Seventeenth Session180
 Notes182
C.Termination or Suspension183
1.Termination (or Withdrawal) by the Terms of the Treaty or Consent183
2.Termination (or Withdrawal) When the Treaty Is Silent185
 United Nations Conference on International Organization, Commission I: Commentary on Withdrawal185
 United Nations Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 26 on Issues Relating to the Continuity of Obligations to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights186
 Notes187
3.Termination as a Consequence of Breach190
 Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of the Second Part of Its Seventeenth Session190
 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Article 60193
 Application of the Interim Accord of 13 September 1995 (The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia v. Greece)194
 Notes200
4.Termination Due to Impossibility or Changed Circumstances204
 Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of the Second Part of Its Seventeenth Session204
 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Articles 61-62205
 Gabeikovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovakia)206
 Notes208
D.Effects of Armed Conflict on Treaties210
 Techt v. Hughes210
 Partial Award on Economic Loss Throughout Ethiopia212
 Draft Articles on the Effects of Armed Conflict on Treaties214
 Notes215
ch. 4 Other Sources of Law217
1.General Principles of Law217
 Prosecutor v. Erdemovie217
 Notes226
 Schachter, International Law in Theory and Practice228
 Notes233
2.Judicial Decisions and Publicists238
A.Judicial Decisions238
1.Decisions of the International Court of Justice238
2.Decisions of Other International Courts and Tribunals241
3.Decisions of National Courts243
B.Teachings of Highly Qualified Publicists243
3.Acts of International Organizations246
A.Decisions of Plenary Organs246
B.Decisions Directly Binding upon Member States250
 Talmon, The Security Council as World Legislature252
 Notes256
4.Transnational Public Regulation257
 Krisch & Kingsbury, Introduction: Global Governance and Global Administrative Law in the International Legal Order257
 Notes259
5."Soft Law"263
 Schachter, The Twilight Existence of Nonbinding International Agreements264
 Notes269
6.Unilateral Acts270
 Legal Status of Eastern Greenland (Denmark v. Norway)270
 Nuclear Tests Case (Australia v. France)270
 Frontier Dispute Case (Burkina Faso/Mali)275
 Guiding Principles Applicable to Unilateral Declarations of States Capable of Creating Legal Obligations276
 Notes277
ch. 5 States281
1.The Determination of Statehood282
A.The Traditional Requirements283
 Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States283
 Notes284
1.Requirement of a Permanent Population and Defined Territory288
 Statement of U.S. Representative Philip Jessup to the U.N. Security Council Regarding the Admission of Israel to the United Nations288
 Notes290
2.Requirement of a Government291
 Report of the International Committee of Jurists Entrusted by the Council of the League of Nations with the Task of Giving an Advisory Opinion upon the Legal Aspects of the Aaland Islands Question291
 Notes292
3.Requirement of Capacity to Engage in Relations with Other States293
B.Additional Contemporary Requirements?294
 European Community Declaration on the "Guidelines on the Recognition of New States in Eastern Europe and in the Soviet Union"294
 Notes295
C.Case Study: Dissolution of the Former Yugoslavia296
 European Community Declaration on Yugoslavia and on the Guidelines on the Recognition of New States297
 Conference on Yugoslavia Arbitration Commission Opinion No. 4 on International Recognition of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia[—]Herzegovina by the European Community and Its Member States298
 Notes300
D.Prohibitions on Recognizing Statehood303
 Question Concerning the Situation in Southern Rhodesia303
 Notes304
2.The Principle of Self-Determination of "Peoples"307
A.Decolonization310
B.Foreign Occupation312
C.Political Participation and Potential "Remedial Secession"312
 Reference re Secession of Quebec312
 Notes320
3.Entities with Special Status321
A.The State of the Vatican City and the Holy See321
B.Palestine323
C.Taiwan325
D.Hong Kong and Macao328
E.Other Types of Sui Generis Entities330
4.Recognition of Governments332
A.Criteria for Recognizing Governments332
 Memorandum from the Secretary-General to the President of the Security Council on the Legal Aspects of the Problem of Representation in the United Nations333
 Notes334
 Acevedo, The Haitian Crisis and the OAS Response: A Test of Effectiveness in Protecting Democracy335
 Notes337
 Murphy, Democratic Legitimacy and the Recognition of States and Governments338
 Notes345
B.Is Recognition Necessary?347
 Statement of Secretary of Foreign Relations of Mexico Estrada347
 Notes348
C.Unrecognized Governments351
1.Capacity of Unrecognized Governments to Bind the State351
 Tinoco Claims Arbitration (Great Britain v. Costa Rica)351
 Note352
2.Capacity of an Insurgent Authority in Control of Specific Territory352
3.Unrecognized Governments in Municipal Law353
 Salimoff & Co. v. Standard Oil353
 National Petrochemical Co. of Iran v. M/T Stolt Sheaf354
 Notes355
4.Termination of Recognition358
 Statement of the United States: U.S. Normalizes Relations with People's Republic of China358
 Notes359
5.Acquisition and Delimitation of Territory359
A.Acquisition of Territory359
1.Title by Discovering or Occupying Terra Nullius360
2.Title by Military Conquest362
 Security Council Resolution Concerning Iraq's Attempted Annexation of Kuwait363
 Notes363
3.Title by Treaty of Cession365
4.Title by State Succession365
5.Title Based on Longstanding Effective and Peaceful Possession (Prescription)366
 Island of Palmas Case (United States v. The Netherlands)366
 Notes371
B.Determining Boundaries: The Principle of Uti Possidetis Juris377
 Frontier Dispute (Burkina Faso/Mali)377
 Notes380
C.Settling Boundary Disputes Peacefully382
ch. 6 International & Non-Governmental Organizations387
 Note387
1.International Organizations388
A.International Legal Personality391
 Reparation for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations392
 Notes399
B.Interpreting the Powers of the International Organization404
 Certain Expenses of the United Nations405
 Notes406
 Prosecutor v. Tadie408
 Notes411
C.Responsibility of International Organizations413
 Notes415
D.Immunities of International Organizations417
E.Membership and Representation in International Organizations419
 Legality of Use of Force (Serbia & Montenegro v. United Kingdom)421
 Notes424
2.Non-Governmental Organizations424
 Charnovitz, Nongovernmental Organizations and International Law425
 Notes429
ch. 7 Individuals and Corporations433
1.Status, Rights, and Obligations of the Individual433
 Lauterpacht, International Law and Human Rights435
 O'Connell, International Law437
 Notes438
A.Rights of the Individual439
 LaGrand Case (Germany v. United States)439
 Notes440
B.Obligations of the Individual441
2.Nationality of Individuals443
A.Significance of Nationality443
B.Acquisition and Denial of Nationality444
 Spiro, A New International Law of Citizenship445
 Notes446
C."Genuine Link" and Voluntary Choice as Limitations448
 Nottebohm Case (Liechtenstein v. Guatemala)449
 Notes453
D.Dual Nationality455
 Iran-United States Claims Tribunal, Case No. A/18455
 Notes459
E.Denationalization461
 Eritrea Ethiopia Claims Commission, Partial Award, Civilian Claims, Eritrea's Claims 15, 16, 23 & 27-32461
 Notes467
3.Transnational Corporations Under International Law468
A.Nationality of Corporations469
 Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company, Ltd. (Belgium v. Spain)469
 Notes477
B.Regulating Transnational Corporations479
 Murphy, Taking Multinational Corporate Codes of Conduct to the Next Level479
 Notes482
ch. 8 Rules on State Responsibility485
1.General Principles of State Responsibility485
A.General Principles485
B.The 2001 International Law Commission Articles on State Responsibility487
2.Attribution of Conduct to a State490
 Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia & Herzegovina v. Serbia & Montenegro)490
 Notes497
3.Breach of an International Obligation500
A.Fault500
B.Is Tangible Injury Required?501
C.Can Third Parties Complain? Erga Omnes Obligations502
 Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company, Ltd. (Belgium v. Spain)504
 Notes505
4.Circumstances Precluding Wrongfulness506
 Rainbow Warrior (New Zealand v. France)507
 Gabeikovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovakia)511
 Notes514
5.Reparation for the Breach of an International Obligation517
 Notes518
6.Countermeasures521
 Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovakia)521
 Notes523
ch. 9 Dispute Settlement531
1.The Obligation to Settle Disputes by Peaceful Means531
A.The Source of the Obligation531
1.U.N. Charter531
2.General Act of 1928532
3.Regional Dispute Settlement Treaties532
4.Dispute Resolution Clauses in Specialized Treaty Regimes533
B.Meaning of "Dispute"534
2.Non-Adjudicatory Procedures535
A.Negotiation535
B.Mediation538
C.Conciliation540
3.Arbitration543
A.The Nature and Role of International Arbitration543
B.Key Elements in the Arbitral Process544
C.Choice of Forum545
1.Permanent Court of Arbitration546
2.International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes547
3.The Iran[—]United States Claims Tribunal548
4.Mass Claims549
5.International Commercial Arbitration Centers550
D.Validity and Enforcement of Arbitral Awards551
4.The International Court of Justice552
A.Structure of the International Court554
 Murphy, The International Court of Justice554
 Notes556
B.Jurisdiction and Admissibility in Contentious Cases559
1.Jurisdiction Based on Joint Referral559
2.Jurisdiction Based on Forum Prorogatum560
3.Jurisdiction Based on a Treaty561
 Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (New Application: 2002) (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Rwanda)561
 Notes565
4.Jurisdiction Based on Declarations Accepting Compulsory Jurisdiction566
 Restatement of the Law (Third), The Foreign Relations Law of the United States [§] 903, Reporter's Note 2 (1987)569
 Notes570
 Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States)572
 Notes576
5.Admissibility of the Claim578
 Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States)578
 Statement of the Legal Adviser of the State Department, Abraham D. Sofaer, to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee581
 Notes583
C.Ancillary Issues in Contentious Cases584
1.Provisional Measures of Protection585
 Application of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Georgia v. Russia)585
 Notes590
2.Non-Appearance591
3.Intervention592
4.Counter-Claims593
5.Finality of Judgments595
 Request for Interpretation of the Judgment of 15 June 1962 in the Case Concerning The Temple of Preah Vihear (Cambodia v. Thailand) (Cambodia v. Thailand)595
6.Compliance596
D.Advisory Opinions598
1.Background598
2.Jurisdiction599
3.Discretion Not to Answer the Question601
 Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo602
4.Utility of Advisory Opinions608
5.Other International Courts and Tribunals609
A.Compulsory Dispute Settlement in Certain Regimes609
B.Structure and Composition of the Tribunal611
C.Standing612
D.Provisional Measures613
E.Appellate Review614
 United States[—]Final Anti-Dumping Measures on Stainless Steel from Mexico615
F.Compliance617
 Notes618
ch. 10 International Law in National Law621
1.General Considerations621
2.Customary International Law in U.S. Law623
A."Law of Nations" in the Early American Republic623
 Trial of Gideon Henfield623
 Ware v. Hylton624
 Notes625
B.Customary International Law as a Source of U.S. Law626
 The Paquete Habana626
 Henkin, International Law as Law in the United States626
 Restatement of the Law (Third), The Foreign Relations Law of the United States (1987)627
 Notes628
 Sosa v. Alvarez[—]Machain630
 Notes631
 United States v. Dire633
 Notes640
C.Relationship of Law of Nations to Other Sources of U.S. Law642
 Henkin, The Constitution and United States Sovereignty: A Century of Chinese Exclusion and Its Progeny642
 Notes645
3.Treaties in U.S. Law647
A.The Constitutional Framework647
 United States Constitution647
 Notes647
B.Constitutional Limitations on the Treaty Power648
 Missouri v. Holland648
 Notes651
C.The Later-In-Time Rule654
 Whitney v. Robertson654
 Breard v. Greene655
 Restatement of the Law (Third), The Foreign Relations Law of the United States [§] 115 (1987)657
 Notes658
D.Self-Executing and Non-Self-Executing Treaties659
 Foster v. Neilson659
 Medellin v. Texas660
 Notes679
E.Interpreting Treaties684
 Hamdan v. Rumsfeld684
 Notes687
F.Suspension or Termination of Treaties688
 Henkin, Foreign Affairs and the U.S. Constitution688
 Notes690
4.Other International Agreements in U.S. Law692
 Restatement of the Law (Third), The Foreign Relations Law of the United States [§] 303692
A.Congressional-Executive Agreements693
 Henkin, Foreign Affairs and the U.S. Constitution693
 Notes695
B.Sole Executive Agreements698
 United States v. Belmont698
 Henkin, Foreign Affairs and the U.S. Constitution700
 Notes700
5.International Law Before U.S. Courts702
A.Political Question Doctrine702
B.The Act of State Doctrine703
 Banco Nacional de Cuba v. Sabbatino703
 Notes708
C.International Law in U.S. Constitutional Interpretation713
 Roper v. Simmons714
 Notes716
6.International Law in the National Law of Other States717
 Constitution of the Republic of South Africa718
 Notes719
 Kadi and Al Barakaat Int'l Foundation v. Council and Commission725
 Notes729
ch. 11 Jurisdiction at the National Level733
1.Overview of Jurisdiction733
A.Three Forms of Jurisdiction733
B.National Law and International Law734
C.Burden of Establishing Whether Jurisdiction Is Permissible or Impermissible736
D.Criminal and Civil Jurisdiction736
2.National Law Limitations on Jurisdiction to Prescribe736
 United States v. Bowman737
 Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co740
 Notes745
 Al-Skeini v. Secretary of State for Defence747
 Notes751
3.International Law Principles on Jurisdiction to Prescribe752
 Restatement of the Law (Third), The Foreign Relations Law of the United States [§][§] 402-404 (1987)753
 Notes754
A.Territorial Principle755
1.Subjective Territorial Principle755
2.Objective Territorial Principle757
 F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. v. Empagran S.A.758
 Notes765
B.Nationality Principle770
 Blackmer v. United States770
 Notes773
 Restatement of the Law (Third), The Foreign Relations Law of the United States [§] 414 (1987)775
 Notes775
C.Passive Personality Principle778
 United States v. Neil778
 Notes781
D.Protective Principle784
 United States v. Vasquez-Velasco784
 Notes788
E.Universal Jurisdiction790
 Regina v. Bartle, Bow Street Stipendiary Magistrate & Commissioner of Police, Ex Parte Pinochet793
 United States v. Yousef796
 Notes799
4.International Law Limitations on Jurisdiction to Adjudicate802
 Restatement of the Law (Third), The Foreign Relations Law of the United States [§] 421, [§] 423 (1987)803
 Notes804
5.International Law Limitations on Jurisdiction to Enforce805
 Restatement of the Law (Third), The Foreign Relations Law of the United States [§][§] 431-32 (1987)805
 Letter of 15 June 1960 From the Representative of Argentina to the President of the Security Council806
 Notes808
6.Granting Jurisdiction to a Foreign State by Treaty809
 Wilson v. Girard809
 Notes812
ch. 12 Immunity From Jurisdiction815
1.Jurisdictional Immunities of Foreign States: From Absolute to Restrictive Immunity816
A.Absolute Form of Sovereign Immunity816
 The Schooner Exchange v. McFaddon816
 Notes819
B.Restrictive Form of Sovereign Immunity819
 Letter of Department of State Acting Legal Adviser, Jack B. Tate, to Acting Attorney General of the Department of Justice, Philip B. Pearlman821
 Notes824
2.U.S. Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act826
A.Adoption of the FSIA826
 Argentine Republic v. Amerada Hess Shipping Corp.826
 Austria v. Altmann829
 Notes833
B.Waiver Exception835
 Siderman de Blake v. Republic of Argentina835
 Notes836
C.Commercial Activities Exception837
 Republic of Argentina v. Weltover, Inc.837
 Saudi Arabia v. Nelson841
 Notes845
D.Expropriation Exception847
 Notes848
E.Exception for Property Within the Forum State849
 Permanent Mission of India to the United Nations v. City of New York849
 Note851
F.Exception for Noncommercial Torts852
 Argentine Republic v. Amerada Hess Shipping Corp.852
 Notes853
G.Exception for Enforcement of Arbitral Agreements or Awards854
H.Terrorist[—]State Exception856
 Notes856
I.Immunity for State Agencies or Instrumentalities858
 Dole Food Company v. Patrickson858
J.Immunity from Execution Against Assets860
 First National City Bank v. Banco Para El Comercio Exterior de Cuba861
 Notes867
3.State Immunities Under Multilateral Conventions and Customary International Law869
 Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy: Greece Intervening)872
 Note875
4.Immunities of State Representatives875
A.Heads and Former Heads of State, Heads of Government, and Foreign Ministers875
 Regina v. Bartle and Commissioner of Police, Ex Parte Pinochet875
 Notes880
 Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Belgium)881
 Notes886
B.State Officials: Immunities in the United States888
 Samantar v. Yousuf888
 Notes895
C.Diplomatic Representatives897
1.Under the Law of Nations897
 4 Hackworth, Digest of International Law897
2.Theories of Diplomatic Immunity898
3.Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations898
4.U.S. Statutory Framework899
5.Role of the U.S. Department of State900
D.Consuls900
E.Special Envoys and Missions901
5.Immunities of International Organizations902
A.Early Developments902
B.The United Nations903
C.Immunities of IO Personnel905
D.Headquarters Agreements907
E.Administrative Tribunals910
F.Representatives to International Organizations911
 Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations911
 Agreement Between the United Nations and the United States Regarding the Headquarters of the United Nations913
 Notes913
ch. 13 Human Rights915
1.Foundations of Human Rights Law915
A.Overview of History and Structure915
 Buergenthal, The Evolving International Human Rights System916
 Notes918
B.Competing Interests920
 Sahin v. Turkey921
 Notes932
2.Global Norms and Institutions934
A.Global Norms934
1.Charter of the United Nations934
2.Universal Declaration of Human Rights936
3.The Two International Covenants937
a.International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights938
b.International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights939
c.Comparison of the Covenants with the Universal Declaration939
4.Other Instruments940
5.What Difference Do Global Human Rights Treaties Make?941
B.Global Institutions942
 Buergenthal, The Evolving International Human Rights System942
 Notes945
C.Problems and Prospects: A Closer Look at the Emergence of Human Rights for Women947
 The Human Rights of Women948
 CEDAW, General Recommendation No. 19, Violence Against Women950
 Notes951
D.U.S. Adherence to Global Human Rights Treaties954
 Henkin, The Age of Rights954
 Notes955
E.Customary International Law of Human Rights956
 Restatement of the Law (Third), The Foreign Relations Law of the United States [§] 702 (1987)956
 Notes958
3.Regional Norms and Institutions958
A.The European Human Rights System959
1.Birth of the European Convention System959
2.European Court of Human Rights Jurisprudence960
3.The European Social Charter961
4.European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights; European Court of Justice962
5.The Helsinki System963
B.The Inter-American Human Rights System964
1.American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man964
2.American Convention on Human Rights964
3.Inter-American Commission on Human Rights965
4.Inter-American Court of Human Rights966
C.The African Human Rights System969
1.The Banjul Charter969
2.African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights970
3.African Court on Human Rights971
 Notes971
4.Deviating from the Norms973
A.Limitations Within the Norms Themselves973
 Henkin, The International Bill of Rights: The Covenant on Civil and Political Rights973
 Notes973
B.Reservations974
 United States Reservations, Understandings and Declarations to Its Ratification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights974
 United Nations Human Rights Committee, General Comment 24977
 Observations by the United States of America on General Comment No. 24977
 Notes977
C.Derogations in Emergencies979
 Lawless Case979
 Notes983
D.Extraterritorial Application986
 Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory986
 Dennis, Application of Human Rights Treaties Extraterritorially During Times of Armed Conflict987
 Ben[—]Naftali, The Extraterritorial Application of Human Rights to Occupied Territories991
 Notes993
5.Mechanisms for Promoting Compliance995
A.Reporting Requirements995
 Henkin, International Law: Politics and Values995
 Notes996
B.Inter-State Complaints998
 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Article 41(1)998
 Notes998
C.Petitions by Individuals999
 Henkin, International Law: Politics and Values999
 Notes1000
D.International Economic Sanctions1000
E.International Criminal Sanctions1001
F.Military Action1002
 United Nations General Assembly, 2005 World Summit Outcome1002
G.National Enforcement: The United States1002
1.Human Rights Treaties in U.S. Law1002
2.Customary Human Rights Law in U.S. Law1003
3.Implementation Through Criminal Jurisdiction1003
4.Implementation Through Civil Jurisdiction1004
a.Alien Tort Statute1004
b.Torture Victim Protection Act1006
ch. 14 Injury to Aliens and Foreign Investors1007
1.Introduction1007
2.Sources of Law on Injury to Aliens1008
A.Customary International Law1008
B.Bilateral Treaties1008
1.Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation (FCN) Treaties1009
2.Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITS)1010
3.Bilateral Free Trade Agreements (FTAs)1011
C.Multilateral Treaties1011
D.Contracts or Concession Agreements1012
E.National Law1012
F.Human Rights Law1012
3.Substantive Rules on Injury to Aliens1013
A.Relative Standards of Treatment1013
1.National Treatment Standard1014
2.Most-Favored-Nation Standard1014
B.Absolute or Non-Contingent Standards of Treatment1015
1.Minimum Standard of Treatment1015
a.Denial of Procedural Justice1016
b.Failure to Protect Aliens1017
c.Fair and Equitable Treatment1018
2.Expropriation and Nationalization1020
 Restatement of the Law (Third), The Foreign Relations Law of the United States [§] 712 (1987)1020
 Fireman's Fund Insurance Co. v. Mexico1020
C.Contemporary Case Law1022
 Agreement on the Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments Between Spain and Mexico1023
 Tecnicas Medioambientales Tecmed S.A. ("TECMED") v. Mexico1024
 Notes1035
 Note on Historical Attitudes Concerning Expropriation1039
D.Breach by a State of Its Contractual Undertaking to an Alien1043
1.Choice of Governing Law1044
 Texaco Overseas Petroleum Co. v. Libya1045
 Notes1053
2.Breach of Undertaking as a Violation of International Law1054
 Restatement of the Law (Third), Foreign Relations Law of the United States [§] 712(2) (1987)1055
 Notes1055
4.Procedural Rules on Injury to Aliens1057
A.State Espousal of Claims of Nationals1058
B.Rule on Exhaustion of Local Remedies1059
 Ahmadou Sadio Diallo (Guinea v. Democratic Republic of the Congo)1059
 Notes1062
C.Rule on Continuous Nationality1065
 Ahmadou Sadio Diallo (Guinea v. Democratic Republic of the Congo)1067
D.Waiver by Alien of Claim or Right to Diplomatic Protection1070
E.Investor-State Dispute Settlement1072
5.Reparation for Injury to Aliens1074
 International Law Commission Commentary on Article 36 of the I.L.C. Articles on State Responsibility1074
 Tecnicas Medioambientales Tecmed S.A. ("TECMED") v. Mexico1078
 Notes1081
ch. 15 Use of Force1087
1.Use of Force Prior to the U.N. Charter1087
A.Availability of the Resort to War1087
 2 Oppenheim, International Law1088
 Notes1089
B.Regulation of Coercive Measures Short of War: Forcible Reprisals1090
 Naulilaa Incident1090
 Notes1091
C.Self-Defense1091
 The Caroline1092
 Notes1093
D.Steps Toward Outlawing of War1093
 Convention Respecting the Limitation of the Employment of Force for the Recovery of Contract Debts1093
 Covenant of the League of Nations1094
 Bowett, The Law of International Institutions1094
 Notes1095
 General Treaty for the Renunciation of War (Kellogg-Briand Pact)1096
 Notes1096
E.Criminalizing Resort to War: Nuremberg1097
 Judgment of the International Military Tribunal1098
 Notes1099
2.U.N. Charter Prohibition on Use of Force1100
A.Basic Prohibition on Use of Force1101
 Charter of the United Nations, Article 2(4)1101
 Schachter, International Law in Theory and Practice1101
 Notes1103
 President Harry Truman, Annual Report to Congress (1950)1103
 Friedmann, The Changing Structure of International Law1104
 General Assembly Resolution on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-Operation Among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations1104
 General Assembly Resolution on the Definition of Aggression1106
 Schachter, The Right of States to Use Armed Force1107
 Notes1107
 Henkin, How Nations Behave1110
 Notes1111
B.Indirect Use of Force1112
 Friedmann, The Changing Structure of International Law1112
 Brownlie, International Law and the Use of Force1113
 Notes1113
C.Threat of Force1114
 Schachter, International Law in Theory and Practice1114
 Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons1115
 Arbitral Award Between Guyana and Suriname1116
 Notes1117
D.Consent to Military Intervention1118
 Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States)1118
 Schachter, The Right of States to Use Armed Force1118
 Communication from the President of the United States Concerning the Deployment of United States Forces to Panama on December 20, 19891119
 Notes1120
3.Exception to the Prohibition: Self-Defense1121
A.Self-Defense "If an Armed Attack Occurs"1121
 Charter of the United Nations, Article 511121
 Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States)1122
 Notes1130
 Schachter, International Law in Theory and Practice1134
B.Rescue of Nationals Abroad as Self-Defense1137
 Brownlie, International Law and the Use of Force by States1137
 Friedmann, United States Policy and the Crisis of International Law1137
 Schachter, International Law in Theory and Practice1138
 Notes1138
C.Anticipatory or Preemptive Self-Defense1140
 Jessup, A Modern Law of Nations1140
 Friedmann, The Changing Structure of International Law1140
 Henkin, How Nations Behave1141
 Schachter, The Right of States to Use Armed Force1141
 Gardner, Commentary on the Law of Self-Defense1143
 Notes1143
D.Self-Defense Against Non-State Actors1147
E.Collective Self-Defense Organizations1150
 Notes1152
4.Controversial Uses of Force for Non-Defensive Purposes1152
A.Humanitarian Intervention; Responsibility to Protect1152
 Schachter, International Law in Theory and Practice1152
 Note on NATO's Intervention in Kosovo1154
 U.N. General Assembly World Summit Outcome1158
 Implementing the Responsibility to Protect: Report of the Secretary-General1159
 Chemical Weapon Use by Syrian Regime: UK Government Position1160
 Notes1161
B.Intervention in Support of Democracy or Self-Determination1164
 Reisman, Coercion and Self-Determination: Construing Charter Article 2(4)1164
 Schachter, The Legality of Pro-Democratic Invasion1165
 Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States)1166
 Notes1167
5.Use of Force and the Security Council1168
A.Chapter VII: Original Scheme and Its Historical Evolution1169
 Charter of the United Nations, Chapter VII1169
 Note on Evolution of U.N. Collective Security1170
B.Examples of Security Council Responses to Threats to the Peace1171
1.Korea (1950-53)1172
 Notes1173
2.Iraq (1990-2002)1174
 U.N. Security Council Resolution 6781175
 Notes1176
 U.N. Security Council Resolution 6871178
 Notes1180
3.Iraq (2002-2005)1183
 U.N. Security Council Resolution 14411183
 Taft & Buchwald, Preemption, Iraq, and International Law1185
 Notes1188
4.Libya (2011)1190
 U.N. Security Council Resolution 19731191
 Notes1192
6.U.N. Peacekeeping1192
A.Emergence of Peacekeeping Operations1192
B.Examples of Peacekeeping Operations1195
1.Arab-Israeli Conflict (1956[—])1195
2.Congo (1960-64)1197
 Notes1198
3.Cambodia (1991-93)1199
C.Complex Operations: Peacekeeping and Enforcement1200
1.Somalia (1992-95)1200
 Security Council Resolution 7941201
 Notes1202
2.Rwanda (1993-94)1204
 Report of the Independent Inquiry into the Actions of the United Nations During the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda1206
3.Former Yugoslavia (1991-95)1207
 Notes1209
4.Democratic Republic of the Congo (1999[—])1210
 U.N. Security Council Resolution 20981211
 Notes1214
7.Use of Force and Regional Organizations1214
A.Regional Organizations and the U.N. Charter1214
 Charter of the United Nations, Chapter VIII1214
 Schachter, Authorized Uses of Force by the United Nations and Regional Organizations1215
B.NATO and the League of Arab States1216
C.Inter-American System1217
 The Cuban Missile Crisis, 19621218
 Resolution on the Adoption of Necessary Measures to Prevent Cuba from Threatening the Peace and Security of the Continent1219
 Meeker, Defensive Quarantine and the Law1219
 Notes1220
D.African Union1221
E.Sub-Regional Organizations1223
1.Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN)1223
2.Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)1223
3.Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)1224
8.Law of Armed Conflict and Control of Weapons1225
A.Law of Armed Conflict1225
1.Overview1225
 Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons1228
 Notes1229
2.International and Non-International Armed Conflict1232
 Notes1234
3.Prohibited Methods of Warfare1234
 Western Front, Aerial Bombardment and Related Claims, Partial Award[—]Eritrea's Claims1236
 Notes1240
4.Prohibited Means of Warfare1243
 Notes1245
5.Protection of Prisoners of War1246
 Notes1247
6.Protection of Civilians1248
a.Enemy Aliens and Property1248
b.Occupied Territory1250
 Notes1251
c.Sexual Violence1252
 Central Front Partial Award[—]Ethiopia's Claims1254
 Notes1256
7.Armed Conflict at Sea1258
8.Armed Conflict and Environmental Protection1259
 Notes1259
B.Arms Control and Disarmament1260
1.Chemical and Biological Weapons1261
 Notes1262
2.Nuclear Weapons1262
 Notes1264
C.Law of Armed Conflict in the Internet Era1266
 Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare1267
 Notes1268
ch. 16 International Criminal Law1271
1.Transnational Cooperation in Harmonizing and Prosecuting National Crimes1272
A.Harmonizing National Crimes1272
B.Mutual Legal Assistance1273
C.Extradition1274
1.Extradition by the United States1274
 Notes1276
2.Extradition Within Europe1276
3.Principles of Specialty and Double Criminality1277
 Notes1278
4.Extradition of a State's Own Nationals1279
5."Political" Offenses1280
6.Rule of Judicial Non-Inquiry; Human Rights Challenges1281
 Notes1282
7.Alternatives to Treaty-Based Extradition1285
 United States v. Alvarez-Machain1286
 Notes1293
2.Prosecution of International Crimes in National Courts1295
3.Prosecution of International Crimes Before Ad Hoc International Criminal Tribunals1298
A.Nuremberg and Tokyo International Military Tribunals1298
 Charter of the International Military Tribunal1299
 Report of Justice Robert Jackson to President Harry Truman on the Military Trial of the Major Nazi Leaders at Nuremberg1301
 Notes1303
 "The Justice Case" (Case 3), United States v. Josef Altstoetter, et al.1306
 Notes1310
 General Assembly Resolution on Affirmation of the Principles of International Law Recognized by the Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal1311
 Notes1312
B.International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia1313
1.Creation1313
2.Jurisdiction1313
3.Structure1314
4.Obtaining Custody of Indictees1314
5.Indictments of All Factions1316
6.Victims and Witnesses1316
7.Overall Record, Completion Strategy, and Residual Mechanism1317
C.International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda1317
1.Structure1318
2.Case Law1318
3.Overall Record, Completion Strategy and Residual Mechanism1319
4.Rwandan National Proceedings1320
D.Other Ad Hoc Tribunals1320
 Murphy, Principles of International Law1321
 Notes1326
4.The International Criminal Court1328
A.Background, Structure and Jurisdiction1328
1.Creation1328
2.Jurisdiction1328
3.Limits on Jurisdiction1330
4.Initiation of an Investigation1331
5.Trials and Appeals1331
6.Current "Situations"1332
7.Operating Rules and Budget1332
 Notes1332
B.Case Study: War Crimes in Darfur, Sudan1334
 Security Council Resolution 15931334
 Warrant of Arrest for Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir1335
 Notes1339
C.The United States and the International Criminal Court1340
 U.S. Policy Toward the International Criminal Court: Furthering Positive Engagement1341
 Notes1351
ch. 17 The Law of the Sea1353
1.History and Sources of the Law of the Sea1353
A.Codification of the Law of the Sea: UNCLOS I, II, and III1353
B.U.S. Resistance to the LOS Convention1355
C.The 1994 Implementing Agreement1357
 Notes1359
2.Baselines and Internal Waters1360
A.Deep Indentations1360
B.Rivers and Bays1362
C.Internal Waters1363
D.Islands1364
E.Archipelagos1366
F.Effects of Global Climate Change1368
3.The Territorial Sea1368
A.Historic Development1368
B.Codification of the Territorial Sea1369
C.The Right of Innocent Passage1371
D.Passage Through International Straits (Transit Passage)1374
1.Customary International Law1374
 Corfu Channel Case (United Kingdom v. Albania)1374
2.Codification in the LOS Convention1376
 Notes1378
E.International Canals1380
F.Archipelagic Sea Lanes Passage1383
4.The Contiguous Zone1383
 Notes1384
5.The Continental Shelf1387
A.Emergence of the Continental Shelf Regime1387
 Policy of the United States with Respect to the Natural Resources of the Subsoil and Sea Bed of the Continental Shelf1387
 Schachter, International Law in Theory and Practice1388
 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Article 761389
 Notes1390
B.Rights of the Coastal State to Its Continental Shelf1391
C.Delimitation of the Continental Shelf Between States1392
 Notes1396
6.The Exclusive Economic Zone1398
A.Customary International Law1398
B.LOS Convention Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)1400
 Notes1402
 The "Hoshinmaru" Case (Japan v. Russian Federation)1404
 Notes1406
 Wyman, The Property Rights Challenge in Marine Fisheries1410
7.The Right of Hot Pursuit1412
 Notes1413
8.The High Seas1413
A.The Basic Freedoms1413
 Notes1415
B.Limitations on High Seas Freedoms1416
1.Consent to Board1417
 Agreement Concerning Cooperation to Suppress the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, Their Delivery Systems, and Related Materials by Sea (United States-Liberia)1418
2.Suppression of Piracy1420
 Notes1421
3.Suppression of Unauthorized Broadcasting1422
4.Suppression of Smuggling of Persons1423
C.Military Uses of the High Seas1425
 Testimony of U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense Gordon England Before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on U.S. Accession to the Law of the Sea Convention1425
 Notes1427
9.The Deep Sea-Bed1429
A.Views of Developed Versus Developing States Prior to the LOS Convention1429
B.The Original 1982 LOS Convention Scheme1431
C.The Revised 1994 LOS Convention Scheme1432
 Oxman, The 1994 Agreement and the Convention1432
 Global Ocean Commission, Strengthening Deep Seabed Mining Regulation1439
 Notes1440
10.Pacific Settlement of Disputes1441
 Notes1442
11.The Law of Ocean Vessels1446
A.Nationality of Vessels: The Genuine Link Requirement1446
B.Flag State Jurisdiction Over Vessels1447
 United States v. Flores1448
 Notes1450
C.Coastal State Jurisdiction Over Vessels1452
 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Articles 27-281452
 Notes1454
D.Port State Jurisdiction Over Vessels1455
 Wildenhus' Case1455
 Spector v. Norwegian Cruise Line Ltd.1459
 Notes1463
ch. 18 International Environmental Law1467
1.Historic Development1467
A.Pre-Stockholm Conference1467
B.1972 Stockholm Conference and Its Successors1468
C.Work of the International Law Commission1470
D.Looking Forward1471
2.Transborder Environmental Harm1473
 Trail Smelter Arbitration (United States v. Canada)1474
 Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons1475
 Gabelkovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovakia)1476
 Notes1478
3.Preserving Collective Goods1484
A.Protecting Against Ozone Depletion1484
B.Protecting Against Global Climate Change1486
 Congressional Research Service, Global Climate Change: Major Scientific and Policy Issues1486
 Dernbach & Kakade, Climate Change Law: An Introduction1490
 Notes1492
C.Protecting Against Loss of Biological Diversity1493
D.Pollution of the Marine Environment1494
 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Articles 194, 211, 217-18, 2201495
 Notes1499
4.Trade in Hazardous and Endangered Goods1502
A.Key Regimes1502
1.Trade in Endangered Species1502
2.Trade in Hazardous Wastes1503
3.Trade in Genetically Modified Organisms1504
B.Balancing Trade and Environment Rules1505
 Index1509
Published St. Paul, MN : West Academic, [2014]
Copyright ©2014
Edition Sixth edition.
Description lxxiii, 1532 pages ; 27 cm.
Series American casebook series
American casebook series.
Note Accompanied by Basic documents supplement (xi, 1034 pages).
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references (p. ix-xii) and index.
Subject International law -- Cases.
Added Author Murphy, Sean D., author.
Other Edition Revision of: International law. 5th ed. St. Paul, Minn. : Thomson/West, c2009 9780314191281 (DLC) 2009378239 (OCoLC)422781556
ISBN 9780314286437
0314286438
9780314286451 (Supplement)
0314286454 (Supplement)
OCLC No. or Control No. 876685846