LOCATION3rd Fl REFERENCE
Call No. KF4747.5 .C37 2011
Author Condé, H. Victor, 1947-
Title An encyclopedia of human rights in the United States / H. Victor Condé.
Location Volume/Copy Barcode Status
 3rd Fl REFERENCE  KF4747.5 .C37 2011  1    35005012685811  
 3rd Fl REFERENCE  KF4747.5 .C37 2011  2    35005012685822  
 Forewordxix
 Introduction and User's Guidexxiii
 Introductory Essayxxxi
 Abbreviationslxxix
v. 1 Terms 
1.Accessibility (Principle) (See Legality) 
2.Accession (To Treaty) (See Ratification) 
3.Accountability/Accountable3
4.Activist (See Human Rights Defender) 
5.Admissibility (of complaints, petitions, communications)4
6.Advice and Consent of the U.S. Senate5
7.Affirmative Action6
8.Aggression (see Crimes Against Peace) 
9.Aid Conditionality7
10.Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA)7
11.American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR)8
12.American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man (ADHR)8
13.Amnesty8
14.Anti-Semitism9
15.Apartheid10
16.Arbitrary Arrest/Detention10
17.Arrest11
18.Asylum12
19.Atrocity13
20.Basic Human Rights14
21.Bearer14
22.Bigot(ed)/Bigotry15
23.Bilateral Immunity Agreement (See International Criminal Court) 
24.Bill of Rights16
25.Binding16
26.Breach17
27.Bricker Amendment18
28.Broad-mindedness18
29.Bureau of Human Rights, Democracy and Labor19
30.Capital Punishment20
31.Charter22
32.Children's Rights22
33.Civil Human Rights23
34.Civil Liberties24
35.Civil Rights24
36.Civil Society24
37.Civil War25
38.Collateral Damage26
39.Collective Human Rights26
40.Collective Punishment27
41.Combatant27
42.Command Responsibility31
43.Commission on Human Rights32
44.Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe32
45.Common Article 3 (Geneva Conventions) (See Geneva Conventions of 1949) 
46.Communication/Complaint Procedures33
47.Complementarity of Judicial Systems34
48.Compliance with Human Rights Norms35
49.Conditions of Detention (See Detention) 
50.Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)35
51.Conscientious Objection35
52.Convention36
53.Convention against Torture, Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment36
54.Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)36
55.Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD)37
56.Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (See Genocide/Genocide Convention) 
57.Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)37
58.Corporal Punishment38
59.Counterterrorism Measures38
60.Country Reports41
61.Country-Specific Legislation41
62.Covenant41
63.Crimes against Humanity42
64.Crimes against Peace43
65.Cruel and Unusual Punishment (see Cruel or Unusual Treatment or Punishment) 
66.Cruel or Unusual Treatment or Punishment43
67.Cultural Genocide (See Genocide/Genocide Convention) 
68.Cultural Human Rights45
69.Cultural Relativism45
70.Culture of Human Rights46
71.Culture of Impunity46
72.Culture of Peace47
73.Customary International Law48
74.Declaration/Declarations48
75.Declaration of Independence49
76.Defamation of Religion (See Freedom of Expression) 
77.Defender (See Human Rights Defender) 
78.Degrading Treatment or Punishment50
79.Deportation51
80.Derogation/Derogable Human Rights52
81.Detainee/Detention Facilities (See Detention) 
82.Detention53
83.Development (Economic/Sustainable)55
84.Disability57
85.Disappearance58
86.Discrimination59
87.Diversity60
88.Domestic Remedy60
89.Double Standard/Dual Standard61
90.Due Process of Law62
91.Duty63
92.Economic Human Rights64
93.Effective Domestic Remedy66
94.Effectiveness (Principle of)67
95.Enemy Combatant (See Combatant) 
96.Enhanced/Robust Interrogation Techniques68
97.Entry into Force (EIF)70
98.Environmental Racism71
99.Equality/Equality before the Law72
100.Equality of Arms (See Due Process of Law and Procedural Rights) 
101.Ethnic Cleansing72
102.Ethnic Minority73
103.Exceptionalism74
104.Excessive Force75
105.Executive Agreements (EA)76
106.Executive Orders76
107.Exhaustion of Domestic Remedies77
108.Expropriation78
109.Extradition78
110.Extrajudicial Killing79
111.Extraordinary Rendition (See Rendition) 
112.Fact-finding79
113.Fair Trial80
114.Federal Clause81
115.Female Genital Mutilation (See Gender-Based Violence) 
116.First Generation Human Rights82
117.Forced Disappearance (See Disappearance) 
118.Foreign Sovereignty Immunity Act (FSIA)83
119.Forum of Shame83
120."Four Freedoms"84
121.Free and Fair Elections84
122.Freedom85
123.Freedom of Expression85
124.Fundamental Rights/Freedoms88
125.Gender-Based Violence89
126.Gender Discrimination90
127.General Comments (U.N. HR Committee)91
128.General Human Rights Legislation92
129.Geneva Conventions of 1949 (GC)92
130.Genocide/Genocide Convention94
131.Good Governance96
132.Grave Breaches97
133.Gross Human Rights Violation97
134.Habeas Corpus Proceedings98
135.Hague Regulations (See Law of Armed Conflict) 
136.Hard Core Human Rights99
137.Hard Power (See Soft Power) 
138.Harkin Amendment100
139.Hate Crime100
140.Hate Speech101
141.Helsinki Final Act of 1975/Helsinki Accords102
142.High Commissioner for Human Rights102
143.Holocaust103
144.Human Dignity104
145.Human Right(s)105
146.Human Rights Committee (U.N.)106
147.Human Rights Council (U.N.)107
148.Human Rights Defenders111
149.Human Rights Education112
150.Human Rights Reports114
151.Human Rights Violation114
152.Human Security115
153.Humanitarian Intervention116
154.Humanitarian Law117
155.Illegal Alien119
156.Immigration121
157.Immunity123
158.Implementing Legislation123
159.Impunity124
160.Inalienable Rights124
161.Incommunicado Detention125
162.Independent and Impartial Judiciary127
163.Indigenous Peoples or Populations127
164.Indiscriminate Attack/Force129
165.Individual Complaint130
166.Individual Criminal Responsibility131
167.Individual Rights132
168.Indivisibility (Principle of)132
169.Inherent Human Rights133
170.Inhuman Treatment or Punishment133
171.Inhumane Treatment135
172.Inter-Dependence (Principle of)135
173.Inter-Governmental Organization (IGO)136
174.Inter-Relatedness (Principle of)136
175.Interference137
176.Internally Displaced Person (IDP)138
177.International Bill of Rights138
178.International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)139
179.International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)140
180.International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)142
181.International Criminal Court (ICC)142
182.International Criminal Law144
183.International Financial Institution (IFI)145
184.International Human Rights Law146
185.International Law/Law of Nations (See Public International Law) 
186.Interpretation147
187.Interstate Complaint148
188.Intolerance148
189.Involuntary Servitude149
190.Jackson-Vanik Amendment150
191.Land Mines (see Indiscriminate Attack/Force) 
192.Law of Armed Conflict150
193.Legality (Principle of)153
194.Legislation (See Implementing Legislation and General Human Rights Legislation) 
195.Liberty154
196.Liberty and Security of Person154
197.Lieber Code155
198.Limitation156
199.Link/Linkage156
200.Massacre157
201.Methods or Means of Combat157
202.Military Commission/Tribunal159
203.Military/Belligerent Occupation (Law)160
204.Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)161
205.Minority/Minority Rights161
206.Monitor162
207.Most Favored Nation (MFN) Trading Status163
208.Multilateral Forum163
209.National Consensus164
210.National Security164
211.National Self-Interest165
212.Nationalism166
213.Natural Law167
214.Non-Binding Resolution167
215.Non-Compliance167
216.Non-Discrimination168
217.Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)169
218.Non-Interference with Internal Affairs170
219.Non-Refoulement170
220.Non-Self-Executing Treaty171
221.Non-State Actor172
222.Norm/Normative172
223.Nuremberg Charter and Rules173
224.Nuremberg Principles173
225.Object and Purpose of Treaty174
226.Obligations (International Legal)175
227.On-Site Investigation/Fact Finding175
228.Oppression176
229.Optional Protocol (See Protocol) 
230.Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)176
231.Organization of American States (OAS)177
232.Patriot Act177
233.Periodic State Report (See Report/Reporting) 
234.Perpetrator179
235.Persecution180
236.Personal Status Laws180
237.Pluralism181
238.Police Brutality181
239.Police State182
240.Political Asylum183
241.Political Correctness/Politically Correct183
242.Political Human Rights184
243.Political Will184
244.Positive Obligations (See Obligations (International Legal)) 
245.Preamble185
246.Precautionary/Interim Measures (See Communication/Complaint Procedures) 
247.Preparatory Works/Travaux Preparatoires185
248.Pretrial Detention186
249.Prisoner of Conscience (POC)187
250.Prisoner of War (POW)187
251.Privacy (right to)188
252.Procedural Due Process (See Procedural Rights and Due Process of Law ) 
253.Procedural Obligations (See Obligations (International Legal)) 
254.Procedural Rights190
255.Profiling191
256.Prolonged Arbitrary Detention192
257.Proportionality194
258.Protocol195
259.Public International Law195
260.Racial Discrimination196
261.Racism/Racist199
262.Ratification200
263.Refugee200
264.Regional Human Rights System or Regime201
265.Religious Discrimination201
266.Rendition204
267.Reparations205
268.Reports/Reporting206
269.Reservations, Declarations, and Understandings (RDUs/RUDs)207
270.Responsibility to Protect (R2P)208
271.Reverse Discrimination211
272.Rule-of-Law212
273.Sanctions213
274.Second Generation Human Rights213
275.Secret Detention (See Detention and Arbitrary Arrest/Detention) 
276.Security Council (U.N.)214
277.Segregation217
278.Self-Determination217
279.Self-Executing Treaty218
280.Sign/Signatory218
281.Slavery219
282.Social Human Rights220
283.Social Justice221
284.Socialism221
285.Soft Law223
286.Soft Power223
287.Sovereignty224
288.Sovereignty Proviso225
289.Special Mechanisms/Procedures (U.N.)225
290.Special Rapporteur226
291.Standard Setting227
292.State227
293.State Party228
294.State Responsibility for Injury to Aliens229
295.State Terrorism/State-Sponsored Terrorism (See Terrorism/Terrorist) 
296.Subsidiarity (Principle of)229
297.Substantive Rights230
298.Summary Execution230
299.Surveillance231
300.Terrorism/Terrorist234
301.Third Generation Human Rights238
302.Torture238
303.Torture Victim Protection Act of 1992 (TVPA)249
304.Trafficking (Human)249
305.Transparence251
306.Treaty (International Instrument)252
307.Treaty Monitoring/Supervising Body254
308.United Nations (U.N.) Charter254
309.Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)255
310.Universal Jurisdiction256
311.Universal Periodic Review257
312.Universality261
313.Unlawful Combatant (See Combatant) 
314.Unnecessary Suffering262
315.Unpriviledged Combatant (See Combatant) 
316.Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action263
317.War Crimes264
318.War Crimes Act of 1996265
319.War Criminal (See War Crimes) 
320.Waterboarding265
321.Weapons of Mass Destruction (See Indiscriminate Attack/Force) 
322.Women's Human Rights267
323.Worldview268
324.Xenophobia269
 Primary Documents 
 Introduction to Primary Documents273
 U.S. Founding & Historical Documents277
1.Declaration of Independence277
2.U.S. Constitution (Including the Bill of Rights)280
3.The Emancipation Proclamation283
4.The Four Freedoms Speech285
 Founding & Historical International Documents290
5.Charter of the United Nations290
6.Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)293
7.The Struggle for Human Rights296
 U.N. Related Documents301
8.International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)301
9.U.S. Ratification of the ICCPR, with Reservations, Declarations and Understandings (RDUs)312
10.First Optional Protocol to the ICCPR314
11.Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR317
12.General Comment 22(18) of the U.N. Human Rights Committee on Freedom of Thought, Conscience, and Religion319
13.U.N. Human Rights Reporting Guidelines321
14.U.S. Core Report for All U.N. Periodic Human Rights Reports335
15A.Second and Third Report of the U.S. to the U.N. Human Rights Committee358
15B.List of Issues To Be Taken Up in Connection With the Consideration of the Second and Third Periodic Reports of the United States of America415
15C.Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee on the U.S. Second and Third Reports428
15D.U.S. follow up Comments to the Human Rights Committee on its Concluding Observations, Second and Third Reports436
16.International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)444
17.Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide450
18.U.S. Reservations, Declarations, and Understandings, to the Genocide Convention453
19.Convention against Torture, Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)454
20.U.S. Reservations, Declarations, and Understandings to the Convention Against Torture (CAT)461
21A.U.S. Second Report to the U.N. Committee Against Torture463
21B.CAT Concluding Observations and Recommendation on U.S. Report489
21C.U.S. follow up Comments to CAT on its Concluding Observations, Second and Third Reports496
22.List of Issues Prior to the Submission of the Fifth Periodic Report of the United States of America503
23.Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)510
24.U.S. Reservations, Declarations, and Understandings, to the Racial Discrimination Convention517
25.U.S. Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination518
26.CERD Concluding Observations on the U.S. Report on ICERD592
27.Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)601
28.Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)608
29.Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict620
30.U.S. Ratification of CRC OP on Children in Armed Conflict with RUDs623
31.Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography625
32.U.S. Ratification, Reservations to the Second Optional Protocol to the CRC630
33.Convention on the Political Rights of Women631
34.The Slavery Convention633
35.Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery636
36.Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees640
37.Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees648
38.Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief651
39.Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples654
40.General Assembly Resolution Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms660
41.Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious or Linguistic Minorities665
42.Declaration on the Human Rights of Individuals Who are not Nationals of the Country in which They Live667
43.Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women670
44.International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities673
45.International Convention for the Protection of all Persons from Enforced Disappearance688
46.International Convention for the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families699
47.Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment719
48.Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners725
49.Safeguards Guaranteeing Protection of the Rights of Those Facing the Death Penalty; Death Penalty, Administration of Justice735
50.United Nations Millennium Declaration736
51.Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action741
52.World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance758
53.Civil and Political Rights, Including: Freedom of Expression773
54.The United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy785
55.Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms While Countering Terrorism789
56.United Nations Security Council President's Statement794
57.Resolution adopted by the General Assembly 60/251. Human Rights Council796
58.Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms While Countering Terrorism799
 International Labour Organization Documents810
59.The (ILO) Forced Labor Convention810
60.Convention Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour812
 Organization of American States Documents815
61.Charter of the Organization of American States815
62.American Decleration of the Rights and Duties of Man (ADHR)832
63.American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR)836
64.First Protocol to the ACHR847
65.Second Protocol to the ACHR851
66.The Convention on the Nationality of Married Women853
 Organization for Security & Cooperation in Europe Document856
67.Final Act of Helsinki 1975856
v. 2 Humanitarian Law & International Criminal Law Document863
68.Draft Code of Offences Against the Peace and Security of Mankind863
69.[Hague] Convention (IV) respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its Annex: Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land868
70.Principles of International Law Recognized in the Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal and in the Judgment of the Tribunal, 1950872
71.International Committee of the Red Cross---Basic Rules of the Geneva Conventions and Their Additional Protocols873
72.[Geneva] Convention (IV) Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949 (The "Civilians' Convention")875
73.1977 Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions900
74.1977 Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions925
75.Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons (with Land Mine Protocol)930
76.Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court941
77.ICC Resolution RC/Res.4, June 2010---the Crime of Aggression949
 U.S. Generated Documents953
78.Transcript of President Bush's address953
79.President Barack Obama Cairo Speech958
80.Secretary of State Hilary Clinton, Georgetown University Speech on the Human Rights Agenda of the Obama Administration965
81.USA Human Rights Pledge974
82.2009 Country Reports Overview and Introduction976
83.2009 Human Rights Report: Preface987
84.State Department UPR Website988
85.Universal Periodic Review (UPR) Frequently Asked Questions989
86.Report of the United States of America to High Commissioner for Human Rights on the Universal Periodic Review Process991
87.Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, United States of America1006
88.Uniting And Strengthening America By Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept And Obstruct Terrorism (USA Patriot Act) Act Of 20011025
89.International Religious Freedom Act of 19981071
90.President Obama Executive Order 13492 on Review and Disposition of Individuals Detained at the Guantinamo Bay Naval Base and Closure of Detention Facilities1077
91.Memorandum for John Rizzo, acting General Counsel for the Central Intelligence Agency-Interrogation of Al Qaeda Operative (Torture Memo)1081
92.President Obama Executive Order 13491 on Ensuring Lawful Interrogations1092
93.Department of State: U.N. Statement on "Human Rights, Sexual Orientation, And Gender Identity"1096
94.Defense of Marriage Act1098
95.Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act1098
96.Military Commission Act of 20061109
97.The War Crimes Act of 19961129
98.Detainee Treatment Act of 20051129
99.Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act1132
100.Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, JR. Hate Crimes Prevention Act1135
101.Global Anti-Semitism Act of 20041141
102.Trafficking Victim's Protection Reauthorization Act of 20051145
103.The Alien Tort Claims Act of 1789 (ACTA)1155
104.Torture Victim Protection Act of 19911156
105.Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 19761157
106.U.S. Army Field Manual1160
 Appendices 
A.Chronology of Human Rights in Relation to the United States1167
B.Universal Declaration of Human Rights Alternative Forms1172
C.Charts of the U.N. System for the Promotion and Observance of Human Rights1175
D.Charts of the International Protection of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law1192
E.Treaty Analysis-Interpretation Helps1199
F.How An International Human Rights Norm Becomes U.S. Law1255
G.Spectrum of Law Applicable in the United States1256
H.Status of Treaties Applicable to the U.S.1257
I.Selected U.S. Legislation, Resolutions, and the Restatement of Law1261
J.U.S. Case Law and Non U.S. Cases Involving the United States and International Human Rights Law1308
K.Universal Periodic Review1448
L.Selected Human Rights Report Related Documents1514
M.Human Rights and Security/The War on Terrorism1586
N.Immigration and Aliens1698
O.Law Enforcement. Arrest, Detention and Death Penalty1730
P.Opinion Pieces and News on Human Rights in the United States and the International Community1763
Q.Human Rights Education1789
R.A List of Your Human Rights under the International Bill of Human Rights1806
 Bibliography1809
 Index1815
 About the Author1835
Published Amenia, NY : Grey House Pub., c2011.
Edition 2nd ed.
Description 2 v. (1835) p. : ill., form ; 29 cm
Note Rev. ed. of: Human rights in the United States : a dictionary and documents / Rita Cantos Cartwright and H. Victor Condé. [1st ed.]. c2000.
Cartwright's name appears first on the earlier edition.
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references (p. 1809-1814) and index.
Summary This resource surveys the legal protection of human dignity in the United States, examines the sources of human rights norms, cites key legal cases, explains the role of international governmental and non-governmental organizations, and charts global, regional, and UN human rights measures. --from publisher description.
Gift Purchased from the income of the Edith L. Fisch Fund
Subject Human rights -- United States -- Dictionaries.
Human rights -- United States -- History -- Sources.
Added Author Cartwright, Rita Cantos. Human rights in the United States a dictionary and documents.
ISBN 9781592372904 (hbk.)
1592372902 (hbk.)
OCLC No. or Control No. 173807583