Call No. KZ3410 .A97 2010
Author Aust, Anthony.
Title Handbook of international law / Anthony Aust.
Location Volume/Copy Barcode Status
 4th Floor  KZ3410 .A97 2010    35005013517850  
 Foreword to the First Editionxxv
 Preface to Second Editionxxvii
 Table of treatiesxxxii
 Table of MOUsxliv
 Table of casesxlv
 Glossary of legal termsliv
 List of abbreviationslviii
1.International law1
 Private international law1
 Transnational law2
 The nature of international law2
 But is international law really law?3
 International lawyers4
 The sources of international law5
 Customary international law6
 General principles of law recognised by ̀civilized' nations8
 Good faith8
 Judicial decisions9
 Teachings of the most highly qualified publicists9
 General international law9
 Obligations erga omnes10
 Jus cogens10
 S̀oft law'11
 Domestic law11
 Subjects and objects of, and actors in, international law12
 National liberation movements13
2.States and recognition15
 Criteria for statehood15
 Recognition of States16
 Vatican City18
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus19
 Soviet Republics and former Soviet Republics19
 Domestic courts and unrecognised States21
 Territorial integrity and uti possidetis24
 Recognition of governments25
 Governments in exile26
 De jure and de facto recognition26
 Western Sahara28
 Means of recognition28
 Overseas territories29
 British territories29
 Protected States31
 Mandated and trust territories32
 Boundary, border or frontier?34
 Delimitation and demarcation34
 Intertemporal rule35
 Critical date35
 Means of acquisition35
 Conquest and annexation36
 Occupation and prescription37
 Acquiescence, estoppel and recognition38
 Boundary treaties38
 State servitudes40
 Res communis40
 Common heritage of mankind40
 Territorial integrity and uti possidetis40
 Territorial principle43
 Nationality principle43
 Passive personality principle44
 Protective principle44
 Universal and quasi-universal jurisdiction44
 Effects doctrine45
 Alien Tort Claims Act 178947
5.The law of treaties49
 The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 196950
 What is a treaty?50
 Concluded between States51
 In written form51
 Governed by international law51
 Embodied in a single instrument or in two or more related instruments52
 Given any name52
 But are MOUs really treaties?54
 Agreements between States governed by domestic law55
 Capacity to make treaties55
 Overseas territories55
 International organisations56
 Credentials and full powers56
 Full powers57
 Adoption and authentication57
 Final act59
 Consent to be bound59
 Signature only59
 Òpen for signature'59
 Exchange of instruments60
 Who can sign the instrument of ratification?61
 Acceptance or approval61
 Any other agreed means61
 S̀ignatory', ̀party' and àdherence'62
 The àll States' and ̀Vienna' formulas62
 Rights and obligations before entry into force62
 Obligation not to defeat the object and purpose of a treaty before its entry into force63
 Withdrawal of consent to be bound before entry into force63
 Development of treaties63
 Bilateral treaties64
 Multilateral treaties64
 Interpretative declarations65
 Disguised reservations65
 Reservations generally not prohibited65
 Acceptance of, and objection to, reservations66
 ̀Plurilateral treaties'67
 Constituent instrument of an international organisation67
 All other cases67
 The legal effects of reservations and of objections to reservations68
 Unresolved issues69
 Reservations to human rights treaties70
 Treaty-monitoring bodies71
 Some ways of minimising the problem of reservations71
 Late reservations72
 The International Law Commission study72
 Entry into force73
 Express provisions73
 Date of entry into force74
 Provisional application74
 Preparatory commissions74
 Treaties and domestic law74
 Duty to perform treaties75
 Constitutional provisions75
 United Kingdom76
 United States78
 Implementation by states of a federation80
 Territorial application81
 Territorial extension clauses81
 Declaration on signature or ratification of a multilateral treaty81
 Political subdivisions of metropolitan territory82
 Successive treaties82
 Article 31 General rule of interpretation83
 Paragraph 183
Paragraph 2 (context)84
Paragraph 3(a) (subsequent agreements)85
Paragraph 3(b) (subsequent practice)86
Paragraph 3(c) (relevant rules of international law)86
Paragraph 4 (special meaning)87
 Supplementary means of interpretation87
 Implied terms89
 Interpretation of treaties in more than one language89
 Third States90
 Bilateral treaties91
 Multilateral treaties91
 Duration and termination93
 Express provisions93
 Termination or withdrawal by consent95
 No provision for termination or withdrawal95
 Termination or suspension for breach95
 Supervening impossibility of performance96
 Fundamental change of circumstances (rebus sic stantibus)97
 Severance of diplomatic or consular relations97
 Outbreak of hostilities97
 Can one validly withdraw from a treaty and immediately become a party again?98
 Ùnequal treaties'100
 The depositary100
 Designation of a depositary101
 Multiple depositaries101
 Duty to act impartially101
 Functions of the depositary102
 Correction of errors102
 Registration and publication102
 Sources of treaty texts106
 Treaty indexes107
 Further reading on treaties107
6.Diplomatic privileges and immunities108
 The establishment of diplomatic relations and permanent diplomatic missions109
 The functions of a diplomatic mission109
 The members of the mission111
 Persona non grata112
 Size and composition of the mission staff113
 The premises of the mission113
 Facilitating the acquisition of premises for the mission114
 Help with facilities for the mission114
 Inviolability of the premises of the mission115
 Police action115
 Service of legal process116
 Immunity from jurisdiction116
 Bank account of the mission117
 Protection from intrusion or damage117
 Disturbance of the peace of the mission and impairment of its dignity118
 When inviolability of mission premises begins and ends118
 Exemption of mission premises from taxation119
 Inviolability of mission archives120
 Means of transport120
 Freedom of movement121
 Freedom of communication121
 Inviolability of official correspondence121
 The diplomatic bag122
 What is a diplomatic bag?122
 What may the diplomatic bag contain?122
 Prohibition on opening or detaining the diplomatic bag123
 Scanning the diplomatic bag123
 Diplomatic couriers124
 Personal inviolability125
 No arrest or detention125
 Safeguarding from attack125
 Inviolability of the private residence126
 Inviolability of private papers, correspondence and property126
 The difference between diplomatic immunity and State immunity127
 Diplomatic immunity127
Exception (a) Private immovable property in the territory of the receiving State128
Exception (b) Private involvement in succession proceedings128
Exception (c) Private professional or commercial activity128
 Proof of diplomatic immunity129
 Immunity from giving evidence129
 What immunity is not130
 Immunity from execution130
 Waiver of immunity130
 Social security exemption131
 Exemption from taxation132
 Exemption from personal services133
 Exemption from customs duties and inspection133
 Members of the family of a diplomatic agent134
 Working spouses134
 Administrative and technical staff135
 Service staff135
 Private servants135
 Nationals and permanent residents of the receiving State136
 Commencement of privileges and immunities136
 Termination of privileges and immunities137
 Third States137
 Diplomats in transit137
 Communication in transit138
 Duties of the mission to the receiving State138
 End of the functions of a diplomatic agent139
 Facilities for depature139
 Breach of diplomatic relations and the protection of the interests of the sending State139
 Non-discrimination and reciprocity140
 Special missions141
 Consular relations142
7.State immunity145
 The relationship of State immunity to other legal doctrines146
 Diplomatic immunity distinguished146
 Act of State147
 Human rights147
 Sources of the law on State immunity148
 Which entities enjoy immunity?149
 Exceptions to immunity150
 Commercial transactions151
 Contracts of employment153
 Torts (delicts)154
 Ownership, possession and use of property155
 Intellectual and industrial property rights156
 Aircraft and space objects157
 Registration of a foreign judgment157
 Criminal jurisdiction157
 Pre-judgment measures of constraint157
 Execution of the judgment158
 Service of process158
 Judgment in default159
 Visiting forces159
 Civil claims159
 Criminal jurisdiction160
 Heads of State, heads of government, foreign ministers and other senior officials161
 Civil proceedings161
 Criminal proceedings161
8.Nationality, aliens and refugees163
 Dual nationality163
 The right to leave and return to one's State of nationality165
 Legal persons166
 Ships and aircraft167
 Diplomatic protection167
 Property of aliens169
 Diplomatic asylum170
 Definition of refugee171
 Application for refugee status173
 Fear of persecution174
 Exceptions to refugee status175
 Protection for the State of refuge176
 Obligations of the State of refuge to the refugee177
9.International organisations178
 Membership and representation179
 International legal personality180
 Immunities and privileges181
 Dispute settlement184
 The United Nations184
 The (so-called) UN specialised agencies185
 Staff disputes185
10.The United Nations, including the use of force186
 Withdrawal, suspension and expulsion188
 Regional groups188
 The UN's principal organs189
 The UN's specialised agencies189
 The General Assembly190
 Main Committees of the General Assembly190
 Sixth Committee191
 The Security Council192
 Working methods192
 Powers of the Security Council195
 Human rights203
 Uniting for peace204
 Charter amendment204
 Use of force205
 Prohibition on the use of force206
 Security Council authorisation for the use of force206
 Humanitarian intervention211
 A responsibility to protect?214
11.Human rights215
 Who enjoys the rights?216
 What is a human right?217
 Universal human rights treaties217
 United Nations217
 Regional human rights treaties219
 European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 1950219
 American Convention on Human Rights 1969220
 African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights 1981220
 Arab Charter on Human Rights 1994220
 Outline of the principal civil and political rights221
 Right to life221
 Prohibition of torture222
 Prohibition of slavery and forced labour222
 Right to liberty and security223
 Right to a fair trial223
 No punishment without law224
 Respect for private and family life224
 Freedom of thought, conscience and religion224
 Freedom of expression225
 Freedom of assembly and association225
 Right to marry225
 Right to an effective remedy225
 Prohibition of discrimination226
 Freedom of movement226
 Right to free elections226
 Right to property227
 Right to education227
 General qualifications to rights227
 European Court of Human Rights229
 Other regional treaties232
 Human Rights Committee232
 Other UN monitoring bodies234
12.The law of armed conflict (international humanitarian law)235
 International and internal armed conflicts237
 Conventional weapons238
 Nuclear, chemical and biological weapons (WMD)239
 Prisoners of war240
 Civilians and civilian objects242
 Occupied territory242
 UN forces244
 International Committee of the Red Cross244
13.International criminal law245
 Mutual legal assistance245
 Political offence/exception248
 Simplified extradition248
 Irregular means249
 International crimes250
 Crimes against humanity252
 War crimes253
 Responsibility of superiors253
 Superior orders254
 International tribunals254
 International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY)255
 International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)256
 Sierra Leone Special Court257
 Extraordinary Chambers of the Courts of Cambodia257
 Special Tribunal for Lebanon258
 International Criminal Court (ICC)258
 Surrender of accused persons260
 Personal responsibility261
 United States261
 S̀tate terrorism'265
 S̀tate-sponsored terrorism'265
 Universal terrorism conventions265
 No international definition of terrorism265
 The sectoral, segmental or incremental approach267
 The main provisions of the universal terrorism conventions269
 Ìnternational' terrorism269
 Definition of the offences269
 Quasi-universal jurisdiction270
 ̀Refugees' and terrorism274
 Security Council274
 Bin Laden, Al-Qaida and the Taliban276
15.The law of the sea278
 Internal waters279
 Right of access by foreign ships279
 Territorial sea281
 Innocent passage282
 Rights of the coastal State over ships in innocent passage283
 Contiguous zone284
 Exclusive economic zone284
 Rights, jurisdiction and duties of the coastal State in the EEZ285
 Rights and duties of other States in the EEZ285
 International straits285
 Continental shelf287
 Construction of artificial islands and other installations in the EEZ or on the continental shelf288
 Territorial sea288
 EEZ and continental shelf289
 The Area290
 The high seas290
 Freedom of navigation290
 Hot pursuit293
 Other freedoms294
 Nationality of ships295
 Warships and ships used only on government non-commercial service296
 Landlocked and geographically disadvantaged States297
 In internal waters and the territorial sea297
 In EEZs298
 On the high seas299
 Shared and straddling stocks and highly migratory species299
 Sedentary species299
 Whales and other marine mammals300
 Underwater cultural heritage300
 Dispute settlement under the Convention301
 The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea301
 Means of dispute settlement301
16.International environmental law303
 What is the environment?305
 The development of international environmental law305
 The precautionary approach306
 The polluter pays307
 Sustainable development307
 Environmental impact assessment (EIA)308
 Other fishing309
 Biological diversity312
 The ozone layer, climate change and the Kyoto Protocol313
 Nuclear material314
 The marine environment315
 Hazardous wastes317
 Liability for environmental damage317
17.International civil aviation319
 International Civil Aviation Organization319
 Meaning of aircraft320
 Civil and State aircraft, induding military aircraft320
 National airspace320
 Domestic air services321
 International air services, scheduled and non-scheduled321
 International airspace321
 Civil aircraft and airlines322
 Air services agreements322
 Warsaw and Rome Conventions324
 Jurisdiction over civil aircraft325
 Use of force against aircraft325
18.Special regimes327
 The Antarctic Treaty System (ATS)328
 The Antarctic Treaty328
 Sovereignty clause329
 The Environmental Protocol330
 Amendment of the Treaty and the Protocol and its Annexes331
 The Arctic333
 Suez Canal335
 Panama Canal336
 Kiev Canal336
 International rivers337
 Freedom of navigation337
 Other uses of watercourses338
 Outer space339
 Outer space treaties339
 The geostationary orbit341
 The International Space Station341
 International space organisations341
19.International economic law344
 Bilateral investment treaties345
 A typical BIT346
 The entities protected347
 Types of investment product347
 Treatment of investments348
 Expropriation and compensation348
 Civil disturbance, etc.349
 Dispute settlement349
 Duration of BITs350
 Energy Charter Treaty353
 World Trade Organization353
 Dispute Settlement354
 Appellate Body356
 Compensation and countermeasures357
 International commercial arbitration359
20.Succession of States361
 Independence of an overseas territory362
 Absorption and extinction363
 Recovery of sovereignty363
 Transfer of territory364
 Continuity of statehood364
 Succession to treaties364
 Customary law principles365
 Former colonies and other dependent territories366
 Former Soviet republics368
 The Baltic States369
 Former Yugoslav republics369
 Hong Kong and Macao371
 Succession to State property, archives and debts371
 Former Yugoslav republics372
 Membership of international organisations372
 Representation in international organisations374
 Hong Kong Special Administration Region374
 Nationality of natural persons374
21.State responsibility376
 General matters378
 The internationally wrongful act of a State378
 General principles378
 Attribution of conduct to a State379
 Organs of the State379
 Unauthorised or ultra vires conduct380
 Other conduct attributable to the State381
 Breach of an international obligation382
 Intertemporal rule382
 Extension in time of breach of an international obligation383
 Breach consisting of a composite act383
 Circumstances precluding wrongfulness383
 Content of the international responsibility of a State385
 Cessation and non-repetition385
 Forms of reparation386
 Serious breaches of obligations under peremptory norms of general international law389
 The implementation of the international responsibility of a State389
 Invocation of responsibility by an injured State389
 Notice of claim by an injured State (Article 43)390
 Admissibility of claims390
 Loss of right to invoke responsibility390
 Plurality of injured or responsible States390
 Objects and limits of countermeasures392
 Procedural conditions393
 Obligations not affected by countermeasures394
 Responsibility of an international organisation394
 Individual responsibility395
22.Settlement of disputes396
 Informal means397
 Negotiations and consultations397
 Involvement of third parties397
 Compulsory binding settlement400
 Jurisdiction and admissibility401
 International arbitration407
 Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)408
 Mixed arbitral tribunals409
 International Court of Justice412
 Composition of the ICJ414
 Reciprocal declarations416
 Variations of declarations420
 Intervention by third parties421
 The applicable law422
 Provisional measures/interim measures of protection422
 Judicial review?424
 Procedure and practice424
 Effect, interpretation and revision426
 Advisory opinions427
23.The European Union430
 A brief history431
 Member States431
 European Communities, European Community or European Union?432
 Council of Ministers434
 Court of Auditors436
 Legislative procedure436
 Consultative procedure437
 Co-decision procedure437
 EU law437
 The Treaty and legislation438
 Supremacy of EU law438
 Court of Justice438
 Court of First Instance440
 Preliminary rulings440
 Common Foreign and Security Policy and Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters441
 Legal personality and treaties442
 Human rights443
 Acquis communautaire444
 European Economic Area444
 Qualified majority voting445
 The Lisbon Treaty446
Published Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Edition 2nd ed.
Description lxiii, 527 p. ; 25 cm
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index.
Subject International law.
ISBN 9780521117050 (hbk.)
0521117054 (hbk.)
9780521133494 (pbk.)
0521133491 (pbk.)
OCLC No. or Control No. 499072947
OCLC Cross-Reference 490163351 490163356 711956175 728841135 1005225588 1012637874